Looks like you're using an older browser. For the best experience possible, please upgrade your browser or download a modern browser.
We recommend these free browsers: Firefox or Chrome
You must update your Flash version to view videos. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
For the optimal Juno experience please install Chrome. Download Chrome. Or continue to explore features of the Juno spacecraft using the links on your left.

News

06.06.18

Nike Zoom Hawk Flight Payton GP Payton Flight Sz 9 White Black Red Air Jordan 805272-100 4d9b7c

Ever since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past Jupiter in March, 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s lightning. That encounter confirmed the existence of Jovian lightning, which had been theorized for centuries. But when the venerable explorer hurtled by, the data showed that the lightning-associated radio signals didn’t match the details of the radio signals produced by lightning here at Earth.

In a new paper published in Nature today, scientists from NASA’s Juno mission describe the ways in which lightning on Jupiter is actually analogous to Earth’s lightning. Although, in some ways, the two types of lightning are polar opposites.

“No matter what planet you’re on, lightning bolts act like radio transmitters -- sending out radio waves when they flash across a sky,” said Shannon Brown of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a Juno scientist and lead author of the paper. “But until Juno, all the lightning signals recorded by spacecraft [Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini] were limited to either visual detections or from the kilohertz range of the radio spectrum, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range. Many theories were offered up to explain it, but no one theory could ever get traction as the answer.”

Enter Juno, which has been orbiting Jupiter since July 4, 2016. Among its suite of highly sensitive instruments is the Microwave Radiometer Instrument (MWR), which records emissions from the gas giant across a wide spectrum of frequencies.  

“In the data from our first eight flybys, Juno’s MWR detected 377 lightning discharges,” said Brown. “They were recorded in the megahertz as well as gigahertz range, which is what you can find with terrestrial lightning emissions. We think the reason we are the only ones who can see it is because Juno is flying closer to the lighting than ever before, and we are searching at a radio frequency that passes easily through Jupiter’s ionosphere.”

While the revelation showed how Jupiter lightning is similar to Earth’s, the new paper also notes that where these lightning bolts flash on each planet is actually quite different.

“Jupiter lightning distribution is inside out relative to Earth,” said Brown. “There is a lot of activity near Jupiter’s poles but none near the equator. You can ask anybody who lives in the tropics -- this doesn’t hold true for our planet.”

Why do lightning bolts congregate near the equator on Earth and near the poles on Jupiter? Follow the heat.

Earth’s derives the vast majority of its heat externally from solar radiation, courtesy of our Sun. Because our equator bears the brunt of this sunshine, warm moist air rises (through convection) more freely there, which fuels towering thunderstorms that produce lightning.

Jupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the Sun than Earth’s orbit, which means that the giant planet receives 25 times less sunlight than Earth. But even though Jupiter’s atmosphere derives the majority of its heat from within the planet itself, this doesn’t render the Sun’s rays irrelevant. They do provide some warmth, heating up Jupiter’s equator more than the poles -- just as they heat up Earth. Scientists believe that this heating at Jupiter’s equator is just enough to create stability in the upper atmosphere, inhibiting the rise of warm air from within. The poles, which do not have this upper-level warmth and therefore no atmospheric stability, allow warm gases from Jupiter’s interior to rise, driving convection and therefore creating the ingredients for lightning.

“These findings could help to improve our understanding of the composition, circulation and energy flows on Jupiter,” said Brown. But another question looms, she said. “Even though we see lightning near both poles, why is it mostly recorded at Jupiter’s north pole?”

In a second Juno lightning paper published today in Nature Astronomy, Ivana Kolmašová of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, and colleagues, present the largest database of lightning-generated low-frequency radio emissions around Jupiter (whistlers) to date. The data set of more than 1,600 signals, collected by Juno’s Waves instrument, is almost 10 times the number recorded by Voyager 1. Juno detected peak rates of four lightning strikes per second (similar to the rates observed in thunderstorms on Earth) which is six times higher than the peak values detected by Voyager 1.

“These discoveries could only happen with Juno,” said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. “Our unique orbit allows our spacecraft to fly closer to Jupiter than any other spacecraft in history, so the signal strength of what the planet is radiating out is a thousand times stronger. Also, our microwave and plasma wave instruments are state-of-the-art, allowing us to pick out even weak lightning signals from the cacophony of radio emissions from Jupiter. “

NASA's Juno spacecraft will make its 13th science flyby over Jupiter's mysterious cloud tops on July 16.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Microwave Radiometer instrument (MWR) was built by JPL. The Juno Waves instrument was provided by the University of Iowa. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the spacecraft.
NIKE AIR ZOOM VOMERO 12 MENS SHOE US7-11 863762-407 10',Nike Air KD Floral 6s VNDS OG Box Rare Icey Soles Easy Money Sniper,Nike Air Footscape Magista Flyknit FC Men's Shoes Size 12 Red Black 830600-600,NIKE AIR FORCE 1 LOW ID NBA "ATLANTA HAWKS" SZ 12,Nike Air flights mens size 11 black and white great conditionMen's Nike Air Raid “Outdoor Use Only” Athletic Shoes 642330-100 Size 11.5,2007 Nike Dunk AIR CLASSIC SB MC HAMMER WHITE AUBERGINE PURPLE 310704-111 10.5,Nike Lebron James Wolf Gray Citrus Black Shoes sz 12 NIB,Nike Kobe XI 11 Elite Low Flyknit iD Oreo GLOW IN THE dark blackWhite 885003-994AIR JORDAN XIX 307546-161 white/varsity red-midnight nvy 19 Size 9.5,Air Jordan 1 Retro Olympic High Strap 342132-461 Size 10.5 Men's,NIKE AIR MAX 90 NS GPX BLACK/LASER BLUE RUNNING SHOES ( AJ7182 002 ) SIZE 9.5,Nike Air Force 1 UltraForce Mid Mens 864014-003 Light Bone White Shoes Size 11,Nike Air Max 90 Essential Mens 537384-053 Black Wolf Grey Running Shoes Sz 10.5,Air Jordan 414571-003 Retro Dirty Bred Size 10.5 Black/Red,Nike Air Max 2017 Black Green Men Running Shoes Sneakers TrainersNike Air Max 97 UL ‘17 Navy White Carbon 918356 402 Sz 10.5,1997 OG NIKE AIR FOAMPOSITE PRO ONE PEARL WHITE BLACK TRUE RED 830027-101 12,Nike Air Max 97 Premium QS Country Camo Pack USA Sz 10 Brand NewNike Air Jordan Future Men Casual Shoes Black/Anthracite,Nike Air Penny IV 4 Men's (Size 10.5) White Black True Red 864018 101 HardawayNIKE AIR HUARACHE (318429 042) SZ: MNS 10 RETAIL: $110.00,Nike Air Max 90 Premium Wool Men's size 13 US 700155-300,Nike Air Python Premium Mens 705066-601 Team Red Gum Snakeskin Shoes Size 8.5,Georgetown Jordan why not zer0.1 College/Navy Mens Size 11.5,Nike Air Jordan 7 Retro Pure Money White/Metallic Silver MEN'S 304775-120 SZ10.5,Nike Air Max 2017 Cool Grey Anthracite Dark Grey SZ 12.5 ( 849559-008 ),Nike Air Max 97 Gold Metallic Gs Mens 918890-700 884421-001 sz 4-13 NEW,Nike Air Zoom Vomero 13 Mens Deep Burgundy/Total Crimson/University Red 22908600,MENS NIKE FLYKNIT MAX ID RED-BLACK SZ 9.5,
NIKE KOBE IX 9 ELITE "STRATEGY" BASKETBALL SHOES MEN'S SZ.12,

Members of the media, please contact:

D.C. Agle
Juno Media Relations Representative
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dwayne Brown
NASA Public Affairs Officer
NASA Headquarters

Where is Juno now?

Visualize Juno’s journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System 3D interactive.