Looks like you're using an older browser. For the best experience possible, please upgrade your browser or download a modern browser.
We recommend these free browsers: Firefox or Chrome
You must update your Flash version to view videos. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
For the optimal Juno experience please install Chrome. Download Chrome. Or continue to explore features of the Juno spacecraft using the links on your left.

News

06.06.18

NIKE AIR FOAMPOSITE 2009 ONE “EGGPLANT” 2009 FOAMPOSITE - ITEM NUMBER 3090-101 1b1e65

Ever since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past Jupiter in March, 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s lightning. That encounter confirmed the existence of Jovian lightning, which had been theorized for centuries. But when the venerable explorer hurtled by, the data showed that the lightning-associated radio signals didn’t match the details of the radio signals produced by lightning here at Earth.

In a new paper published in Nature today, scientists from NASA’s Juno mission describe the ways in which lightning on Jupiter is actually analogous to Earth’s lightning. Although, in some ways, the two types of lightning are polar opposites.

“No matter what planet you’re on, lightning bolts act like radio transmitters -- sending out radio waves when they flash across a sky,” said Shannon Brown of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a Juno scientist and lead author of the paper. “But until Juno, all the lightning signals recorded by spacecraft [Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini] were limited to either visual detections or from the kilohertz range of the radio spectrum, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range. Many theories were offered up to explain it, but no one theory could ever get traction as the answer.”

Enter Juno, which has been orbiting Jupiter since July 4, 2016. Among its suite of highly sensitive instruments is the Microwave Radiometer Instrument (MWR), which records emissions from the gas giant across a wide spectrum of frequencies.  

“In the data from our first eight flybys, Juno’s MWR detected 377 lightning discharges,” said Brown. “They were recorded in the megahertz as well as gigahertz range, which is what you can find with terrestrial lightning emissions. We think the reason we are the only ones who can see it is because Juno is flying closer to the lighting than ever before, and we are searching at a radio frequency that passes easily through Jupiter’s ionosphere.”

While the revelation showed how Jupiter lightning is similar to Earth’s, the new paper also notes that where these lightning bolts flash on each planet is actually quite different.

“Jupiter lightning distribution is inside out relative to Earth,” said Brown. “There is a lot of activity near Jupiter’s poles but none near the equator. You can ask anybody who lives in the tropics -- this doesn’t hold true for our planet.”

Why do lightning bolts congregate near the equator on Earth and near the poles on Jupiter? Follow the heat.

Earth’s derives the vast majority of its heat externally from solar radiation, courtesy of our Sun. Because our equator bears the brunt of this sunshine, warm moist air rises (through convection) more freely there, which fuels towering thunderstorms that produce lightning.

Jupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the Sun than Earth’s orbit, which means that the giant planet receives 25 times less sunlight than Earth. But even though Jupiter’s atmosphere derives the majority of its heat from within the planet itself, this doesn’t render the Sun’s rays irrelevant. They do provide some warmth, heating up Jupiter’s equator more than the poles -- just as they heat up Earth. Scientists believe that this heating at Jupiter’s equator is just enough to create stability in the upper atmosphere, inhibiting the rise of warm air from within. The poles, which do not have this upper-level warmth and therefore no atmospheric stability, allow warm gases from Jupiter’s interior to rise, driving convection and therefore creating the ingredients for lightning.

“These findings could help to improve our understanding of the composition, circulation and energy flows on Jupiter,” said Brown. But another question looms, she said. “Even though we see lightning near both poles, why is it mostly recorded at Jupiter’s north pole?”

In a second Juno lightning paper published today in Nature Astronomy, Ivana Kolmašová of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, and colleagues, present the largest database of lightning-generated low-frequency radio emissions around Jupiter (whistlers) to date. The data set of more than 1,600 signals, collected by Juno’s Waves instrument, is almost 10 times the number recorded by Voyager 1. Juno detected peak rates of four lightning strikes per second (similar to the rates observed in thunderstorms on Earth) which is six times higher than the peak values detected by Voyager 1.

“These discoveries could only happen with Juno,” said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. “Our unique orbit allows our spacecraft to fly closer to Jupiter than any other spacecraft in history, so the signal strength of what the planet is radiating out is a thousand times stronger. Also, our microwave and plasma wave instruments are state-of-the-art, allowing us to pick out even weak lightning signals from the cacophony of radio emissions from Jupiter. “

NASA's Juno spacecraft will make its 13th science flyby over Jupiter's mysterious cloud tops on July 16.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Microwave Radiometer instrument (MWR) was built by JPL. The Juno Waves instrument was provided by the University of Iowa. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the spacecraft.
Nike Air Trainer SC High Mens 302346-020 Vast Grey Gunsmoke Red Shoes Size 10.5,NIKE SFB FIELD 8" GEN 2 SPECIAL FIELDS BOOT COYOTE BROWN SZ 11.5 [922471 900],Nike Zoom Winflo 5 Womens Size 7 Aviator Grey/White/Teal NWT $90,Womens Nike Air Max Siren Running Shoes Size 12 Black White Silver 749510 004,Nike Air Foamposite Eggplant Size 15,Nike Air Jordan 1 Retro High OG Guava Ice/Sail UK10 US11,NEW Nike Air Pippen 325001-403 Mens Shoes Trainers Sneakers SALENike Zoom Stefan Janoski PR Digital Digi Floral Camo SB 2013 Authentic NEW 10.5Nike Air Huarache Mens 318429-111 White Pure Platinum Running Shoes Size 9.5NIKE KYRIE 3 ID WHITE-GREEN-NAVY BLUE SZ 18 [941842-991]Nike Men's Air Max 97 Premium Obsidian Blue 312834-400 NO BOX TOP,Nike Air Presto Fly sz 7Y teal white 913966 301 ultra flyknit Womens 8.5Nike Free RN Motion FK 2017 Flyknit Womens Red Pink Running Training 880846 601,Air Jordan 31 Why Not? Russel Westbrook,Brand New In The Box Nike Air Force 1 488298-118 Size 13NIKE AIR VAPORMAX INNEVA MEN SIZE 12 WOVEN SUMMIT WHITE GLACIER BLUE AO2447 1001808 Nike Hyperdunk X Low Men's Training Running Shoes AR0465-300,Nike Air Max 180 Size 11 White Ultramarine Solar Red 615287 100 Brand New NIB,Nike Shox NZ EU Mens 501524-106 White Black Leather Running Shoes Size 10.5,NIKE AIR JORDAN 6 RETRO GG STILL BLUE-WHITE SZ 6.5Y-WOMENS SZ 8 [543390-407],WMNS Nike Air Force 1 Hi SE Denim SZ 7 Binary Blue Sail Gum Light 860544-400Nike Air Jordan 12 XII Retro French Blue Metallic Silver 130690 113 Sz 102012 NIKE AIR JORDAN SPIZIKE BORDEAUX CEMENT GREY RED BLACK GREEN BLUE WHITE 10,***LEBRON 11 ELITE TEAM(SIZE 10)***,NIKE AIR MAX PLUS BLACK-DARK GREY-WHITE SZ 10.5 [604133-099],NikeAirMax More Men's Running shoes TeamRed BlackUniversity Red 898013 600 Sz13,NIKE AIR MORE MONEY UPTEMPO PIPPEN WHITE-BLACK-TEAM RED SZ 14 [AJ2998-100]Nike Zoom All Out Low Mens 878670-011 Black Aura Grey Running Shoes Size 14,Nike Women's Zoom All Out Flyknit Running Shoes Blue Volt White 845361-400 NWOB,Wmns Nike Flex Bijoux Tea Berry Metallic Silver Women Training Shoes 881863-601
NIKE AIR MAX PENNY 1 ONE DB DOERNBECHER 7 3M VIII 8 VI 6 FOAMPOSITE IV 4 V 5 PE,

Members of the media, please contact:

D.C. Agle
Juno Media Relations Representative
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dwayne Brown
NASA Public Affairs Officer
NASA Headquarters

Where is Juno now?

Visualize Juno’s journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System 3D interactive.