Looks like you're using an older browser. For the best experience possible, please upgrade your browser or download a modern browser.
We recommend these free browsers: Firefox or Chrome
You must update your Flash version to view videos. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
For the optimal Juno experience please install Chrome. Download Chrome. Or continue to explore features of the Juno spacecraft using the links on your left.

News

06.06.18

Nike 2 Air Max 2 Nike CB '94 Low Charles Barkley Gym Red White SZ 11 & 13 917752-600 c14a17

Ever since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past Jupiter in March, 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s lightning. That encounter confirmed the existence of Jovian lightning, which had been theorized for centuries. But when the venerable explorer hurtled by, the data showed that the lightning-associated radio signals didn’t match the details of the radio signals produced by lightning here at Earth.

In a new paper published in Nature today, scientists from NASA’s Juno mission describe the ways in which lightning on Jupiter is actually analogous to Earth’s lightning. Although, in some ways, the two types of lightning are polar opposites.

“No matter what planet you’re on, lightning bolts act like radio transmitters -- sending out radio waves when they flash across a sky,” said Shannon Brown of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a Juno scientist and lead author of the paper. “But until Juno, all the lightning signals recorded by spacecraft [Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini] were limited to either visual detections or from the kilohertz range of the radio spectrum, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range. Many theories were offered up to explain it, but no one theory could ever get traction as the answer.”

Enter Juno, which has been orbiting Jupiter since July 4, 2016. Among its suite of highly sensitive instruments is the Microwave Radiometer Instrument (MWR), which records emissions from the gas giant across a wide spectrum of frequencies.  

“In the data from our first eight flybys, Juno’s MWR detected 377 lightning discharges,” said Brown. “They were recorded in the megahertz as well as gigahertz range, which is what you can find with terrestrial lightning emissions. We think the reason we are the only ones who can see it is because Juno is flying closer to the lighting than ever before, and we are searching at a radio frequency that passes easily through Jupiter’s ionosphere.”

While the revelation showed how Jupiter lightning is similar to Earth’s, the new paper also notes that where these lightning bolts flash on each planet is actually quite different.

“Jupiter lightning distribution is inside out relative to Earth,” said Brown. “There is a lot of activity near Jupiter’s poles but none near the equator. You can ask anybody who lives in the tropics -- this doesn’t hold true for our planet.”

Why do lightning bolts congregate near the equator on Earth and near the poles on Jupiter? Follow the heat.

Earth’s derives the vast majority of its heat externally from solar radiation, courtesy of our Sun. Because our equator bears the brunt of this sunshine, warm moist air rises (through convection) more freely there, which fuels towering thunderstorms that produce lightning.

Jupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the Sun than Earth’s orbit, which means that the giant planet receives 25 times less sunlight than Earth. But even though Jupiter’s atmosphere derives the majority of its heat from within the planet itself, this doesn’t render the Sun’s rays irrelevant. They do provide some warmth, heating up Jupiter’s equator more than the poles -- just as they heat up Earth. Scientists believe that this heating at Jupiter’s equator is just enough to create stability in the upper atmosphere, inhibiting the rise of warm air from within. The poles, which do not have this upper-level warmth and therefore no atmospheric stability, allow warm gases from Jupiter’s interior to rise, driving convection and therefore creating the ingredients for lightning.

“These findings could help to improve our understanding of the composition, circulation and energy flows on Jupiter,” said Brown. But another question looms, she said. “Even though we see lightning near both poles, why is it mostly recorded at Jupiter’s north pole?”

In a second Juno lightning paper published today in Nature Astronomy, Ivana Kolmašová of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, and colleagues, present the largest database of lightning-generated low-frequency radio emissions around Jupiter (whistlers) to date. The data set of more than 1,600 signals, collected by Juno’s Waves instrument, is almost 10 times the number recorded by Voyager 1. Juno detected peak rates of four lightning strikes per second (similar to the rates observed in thunderstorms on Earth) which is six times higher than the peak values detected by Voyager 1.

“These discoveries could only happen with Juno,” said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. “Our unique orbit allows our spacecraft to fly closer to Jupiter than any other spacecraft in history, so the signal strength of what the planet is radiating out is a thousand times stronger. Also, our microwave and plasma wave instruments are state-of-the-art, allowing us to pick out even weak lightning signals from the cacophony of radio emissions from Jupiter. “

NASA's Juno spacecraft will make its 13th science flyby over Jupiter's mysterious cloud tops on July 16.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Microwave Radiometer instrument (MWR) was built by JPL. The Juno Waves instrument was provided by the University of Iowa. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the spacecraft.
Nike Kobe XI Elite Low Basketball Shoes Men's Dark Grey/Mango 822675 078 sz 11.5Nike max LTD 3 premium white mens running sneakers Size 14,Nike Hypervenom Phantom II FG Soccer Cleats Volt Black 747213-703 Men Size 8,Nike Air Huarache Drift Mens AH7334-403 Blue Nebula Black Running Shoes Size 13,Nike Air Force 1 '07 Mens 315122-111 White Leather Athletic Low Shoes Size 13Nike Air Max 90 Leather White BNIB *302519-113* UK Size 9.5DS Nike SB Dunk High Black Sheep Size 7yNike Air Jordan Super.Fly 2017 921203 051 Size 11 Mens Basketball Shoes New,Mens Nike PG 1 Paul George 1 - 878627009 - Grey Brown TrainersNike Air Force 180 Olympic '12 Sz. 10 In Wht/Nvy/red/Mtllc Gld 100% Authentic,2009 Nike Air Trainer 1 Low SL Sample SZ 9 Ohio Sate OSU Buckeyes Red 386489-611,NIKE AIR JORDAN 1 RETRO HIGH PREMIUM "CAMO" WOLF GREY-D GREY SZ 11 [AA3993-027]Nike Air Huarache Run Mens 704830-009 Metallic Hematite Running Shoes Size 9,NIB Mens Nike Air Max BW Ultra GPX 819520 006 sz 8.5 Black white Red sneakers,Nike Air Trainer Huarache (Cactus pack),NIKE AIR INTERNATIONALIST UTILITY MID WOLF GREY SZ 8 857937-002,Nike Lebron XIII Lows Birds of Paradise Basketball Trainers 831925 051 Size 9.5,Nike SB Delta Force Skate Shoes Mens White Sports Shoes Sneakers,NIKE AIR FORCE 180 MENS BASKETBALL SHOES - MENS SIZE 9 BARKLEY,Nike Air Jordan Flight 23 Black/Blue Lagoon-Anthracite-Concord 317820-013 SZ 10Nike Air Force 1 Retro PRM - 941912 200,NIKE AIR HUARACHE RUN 91' QS AH8049-001 BLACK PURPLE WHITE DS SIZE: 9.5,Nike Lunar Fingertrap TR Mens 898066-010 Anthracite Black Training Shoes Sz 9.5,Mens Nike Air Max 95 Premium Se Synthetic & Textile Grey Shoes Trainers,Nike Men's Dunk Ultra High-top Fashion / Casual Sneakers 845055-201 Size: 9.5,KD 7 Good Apple Size 10,New Nike Men's Air Max LD-Zero Summit White/Black/Grey 848624-101 Size 13 $180,nike Air Zoom Mariah Flyknit Racer SAND STRING US MENS SHOE SIZES 918264-200,Womens Nike Air Huarache Run Prime Fleece iD White SZ 11 / Mens 9.5 (777331-993),New Nike Roshe One Mens 511881-417 Gym Blue Platinum Mesh Running Shoes Size 9,
Nike Air Jordan Retro 11 University Blues. 10/10 Cond. With Box! Sz.13,

Members of the media, please contact:

D.C. Agle
Juno Media Relations Representative
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dwayne Brown
NASA Public Affairs Officer
NASA Headquarters

Where is Juno now?

Visualize Juno’s journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System 3D interactive.