Looks like you're using an older browser. For the best experience possible, please upgrade your browser or download a modern browser.
We recommend these free browsers: Firefox or Chrome
You must update your Flash version to view videos. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
For the optimal Juno experience please install Chrome. Download Chrome. Or continue to explore features of the Juno spacecraft using the links on your left.



Nike Air Jordan 14 XIV Retro Size Mens Size Retro 10 Black Toe Varsity Red Black White VNDS df6c98

Ever since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past Jupiter in March, 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s lightning. That encounter confirmed the existence of Jovian lightning, which had been theorized for centuries. But when the venerable explorer hurtled by, the data showed that the lightning-associated radio signals didn’t match the details of the radio signals produced by lightning here at Earth.

In a new paper published in Nature today, scientists from NASA’s Juno mission describe the ways in which lightning on Jupiter is actually analogous to Earth’s lightning. Although, in some ways, the two types of lightning are polar opposites.

“No matter what planet you’re on, lightning bolts act like radio transmitters -- sending out radio waves when they flash across a sky,” said Shannon Brown of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a Juno scientist and lead author of the paper. “But until Juno, all the lightning signals recorded by spacecraft [Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini] were limited to either visual detections or from the kilohertz range of the radio spectrum, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range. Many theories were offered up to explain it, but no one theory could ever get traction as the answer.”

Enter Juno, which has been orbiting Jupiter since July 4, 2016. Among its suite of highly sensitive instruments is the Microwave Radiometer Instrument (MWR), which records emissions from the gas giant across a wide spectrum of frequencies.  

“In the data from our first eight flybys, Juno’s MWR detected 377 lightning discharges,” said Brown. “They were recorded in the megahertz as well as gigahertz range, which is what you can find with terrestrial lightning emissions. We think the reason we are the only ones who can see it is because Juno is flying closer to the lighting than ever before, and we are searching at a radio frequency that passes easily through Jupiter’s ionosphere.”

While the revelation showed how Jupiter lightning is similar to Earth’s, the new paper also notes that where these lightning bolts flash on each planet is actually quite different.

“Jupiter lightning distribution is inside out relative to Earth,” said Brown. “There is a lot of activity near Jupiter’s poles but none near the equator. You can ask anybody who lives in the tropics -- this doesn’t hold true for our planet.”

Why do lightning bolts congregate near the equator on Earth and near the poles on Jupiter? Follow the heat.

Earth’s derives the vast majority of its heat externally from solar radiation, courtesy of our Sun. Because our equator bears the brunt of this sunshine, warm moist air rises (through convection) more freely there, which fuels towering thunderstorms that produce lightning.

Jupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the Sun than Earth’s orbit, which means that the giant planet receives 25 times less sunlight than Earth. But even though Jupiter’s atmosphere derives the majority of its heat from within the planet itself, this doesn’t render the Sun’s rays irrelevant. They do provide some warmth, heating up Jupiter’s equator more than the poles -- just as they heat up Earth. Scientists believe that this heating at Jupiter’s equator is just enough to create stability in the upper atmosphere, inhibiting the rise of warm air from within. The poles, which do not have this upper-level warmth and therefore no atmospheric stability, allow warm gases from Jupiter’s interior to rise, driving convection and therefore creating the ingredients for lightning.

“These findings could help to improve our understanding of the composition, circulation and energy flows on Jupiter,” said Brown. But another question looms, she said. “Even though we see lightning near both poles, why is it mostly recorded at Jupiter’s north pole?”

In a second Juno lightning paper published today in Nature Astronomy, Ivana Kolmašová of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, and colleagues, present the largest database of lightning-generated low-frequency radio emissions around Jupiter (whistlers) to date. The data set of more than 1,600 signals, collected by Juno’s Waves instrument, is almost 10 times the number recorded by Voyager 1. Juno detected peak rates of four lightning strikes per second (similar to the rates observed in thunderstorms on Earth) which is six times higher than the peak values detected by Voyager 1.

“These discoveries could only happen with Juno,” said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. “Our unique orbit allows our spacecraft to fly closer to Jupiter than any other spacecraft in history, so the signal strength of what the planet is radiating out is a thousand times stronger. Also, our microwave and plasma wave instruments are state-of-the-art, allowing us to pick out even weak lightning signals from the cacophony of radio emissions from Jupiter. “

NASA's Juno spacecraft will make its 13th science flyby over Jupiter's mysterious cloud tops on July 16.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Microwave Radiometer instrument (MWR) was built by JPL. The Juno Waves instrument was provided by the University of Iowa. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the spacecraft.
Nike Zoom Vapor Aj3 Black Cement Rf Roger Federer Size 6,2013 Nike Kobe 8 System Premium WHAT THE Sz 8 Orange Volt Yellow 635438 800NIKE MERCURIAL SUPERFLY V CR7 FG SEAWEED-VOLT-HASTA-WHITE SZ 9.5 [852511-376],2017 Nike Air Jordan 1 Retro High OG Black Royal White Sz 13 (4922) 555088-007,NIKE AIR MAX 90 DNM QS 700875-400 SIZE 10 AIR MAX 1 SAFARI ARMOS PATTA PARRAMen's Nike Air More Uptempo QS CHI Chicago Red Basketball Shoes SZ 10 AJ3138-600,Nike Air Jordan Retro 1 High Og Shadow 2018 Size 12 VNDS 100% Authentic W Box,Nike Air Jordan 5 Retro Premium Take Flight Sequoia Gold 881432 305 Size 11 DS,Nike Air More Uptempo Black White Rare,NIKE AIR JORDAN AJF VIII 8 Retro 384522-001 Playoff SZ 10.5 Black Varsity Red,Nike Air Jordan 3 Cement Black Fire Red Retro OG size 10.5 w/ Original Receipt,Nike Air Max 90 Ultra 2.0 Flyknit - 875943 100,nike air jordan 11 retro space jam,NIKE AIR JORDAN 6 VI RETRO CNY "CHINESE NEW YEAR" BLACK GOLD AA2492-021 MENSNike Air Force 270 - Men's Metallic Gold/Black/White Art of a Champion T5752700,Nike Air Zoom Generation QS “King’s Rook” Size 8 AJ4204 001 Black/WhiteNike Air Jordan 2009 2K9 Black Varsity Red White Metallic Size 15,Nike Lebron 15 XV Multicolor Black Four Horseman Size 14. 897648-901Nike Air Jordan Retro 1 High OG " Shadow " sz 11.5 New / DS wow!*Brand New* Nike Sb Dunk Hi-Top "Northern Lights" - Size 10.5 - 313171 063,Nike Air Jordan III 3 Retro 2018 Charity Game US 8/International/Cement,2013 Nike Air Jordan V 5 Retro SZ 11.5 Black Emerald Grape Ice OG BIN 136027-007,Nike Air Max 90 HYP QS Hyperfuse Independence Day USA White Sz 10,Air Jordan 9 IX Retro Kobe PE Lakers Size 3.5-14 White Yellow Concord 302370-121AIR JORDAN 2 RETRO DECON 897521-707 mineral gold/mineral gold Size 9Nike Air Vapormax Flyknit Utility Men's Black/Black/Volt/Bright Crimson H6834007,NIKE AIR FORCE ONE LOW WP WATERPROOF 2004 WHEAT BROWN 309652-721 SIZE 9.5Nike Air Max Zero QS OG White Navy 789695-104 Size 9.5,NIKE AIR JORDAN 18.5 WHITE/BLACK! SIZE 13. BEAUTIFUL CONDITION!,Nike Kobe 9 IX Elite Christmas Mens Size 9 630847-600,
NIKE X ROC-A-FELLA AIR FORCE 1 '07 US9 NEW & 100 % Authentic AO1070-101,

Members of the media, please contact:

D.C. Agle
Juno Media Relations Representative
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dwayne Brown
NASA Public Affairs Officer
NASA Headquarters

Where is Juno now?

Visualize Juno’s journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System 3D interactive.