Looks like you're using an older browser. For the best experience possible, please upgrade your browser or download a modern browser.
We recommend these free browsers: Firefox or Chrome
You must update your Flash version to view videos. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
For the optimal Juno experience please install Chrome. Download Chrome. Or continue to explore features of the Juno spacecraft using the links on your left.



Nike Kobe A.D. 922482-602 Size 15 Port Wine Xi 1 Jordan 1 Xi Air Max 97 98 4 Xii 4f4617

Ever since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past Jupiter in March, 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s lightning. That encounter confirmed the existence of Jovian lightning, which had been theorized for centuries. But when the venerable explorer hurtled by, the data showed that the lightning-associated radio signals didn’t match the details of the radio signals produced by lightning here at Earth.

In a new paper published in Nature today, scientists from NASA’s Juno mission describe the ways in which lightning on Jupiter is actually analogous to Earth’s lightning. Although, in some ways, the two types of lightning are polar opposites.

“No matter what planet you’re on, lightning bolts act like radio transmitters -- sending out radio waves when they flash across a sky,” said Shannon Brown of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a Juno scientist and lead author of the paper. “But until Juno, all the lightning signals recorded by spacecraft [Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini] were limited to either visual detections or from the kilohertz range of the radio spectrum, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range. Many theories were offered up to explain it, but no one theory could ever get traction as the answer.”

Enter Juno, which has been orbiting Jupiter since July 4, 2016. Among its suite of highly sensitive instruments is the Microwave Radiometer Instrument (MWR), which records emissions from the gas giant across a wide spectrum of frequencies.  

“In the data from our first eight flybys, Juno’s MWR detected 377 lightning discharges,” said Brown. “They were recorded in the megahertz as well as gigahertz range, which is what you can find with terrestrial lightning emissions. We think the reason we are the only ones who can see it is because Juno is flying closer to the lighting than ever before, and we are searching at a radio frequency that passes easily through Jupiter’s ionosphere.”

While the revelation showed how Jupiter lightning is similar to Earth’s, the new paper also notes that where these lightning bolts flash on each planet is actually quite different.

“Jupiter lightning distribution is inside out relative to Earth,” said Brown. “There is a lot of activity near Jupiter’s poles but none near the equator. You can ask anybody who lives in the tropics -- this doesn’t hold true for our planet.”

Why do lightning bolts congregate near the equator on Earth and near the poles on Jupiter? Follow the heat.

Earth’s derives the vast majority of its heat externally from solar radiation, courtesy of our Sun. Because our equator bears the brunt of this sunshine, warm moist air rises (through convection) more freely there, which fuels towering thunderstorms that produce lightning.

Jupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the Sun than Earth’s orbit, which means that the giant planet receives 25 times less sunlight than Earth. But even though Jupiter’s atmosphere derives the majority of its heat from within the planet itself, this doesn’t render the Sun’s rays irrelevant. They do provide some warmth, heating up Jupiter’s equator more than the poles -- just as they heat up Earth. Scientists believe that this heating at Jupiter’s equator is just enough to create stability in the upper atmosphere, inhibiting the rise of warm air from within. The poles, which do not have this upper-level warmth and therefore no atmospheric stability, allow warm gases from Jupiter’s interior to rise, driving convection and therefore creating the ingredients for lightning.

“These findings could help to improve our understanding of the composition, circulation and energy flows on Jupiter,” said Brown. But another question looms, she said. “Even though we see lightning near both poles, why is it mostly recorded at Jupiter’s north pole?”

In a second Juno lightning paper published today in Nature Astronomy, Ivana Kolmašová of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, and colleagues, present the largest database of lightning-generated low-frequency radio emissions around Jupiter (whistlers) to date. The data set of more than 1,600 signals, collected by Juno’s Waves instrument, is almost 10 times the number recorded by Voyager 1. Juno detected peak rates of four lightning strikes per second (similar to the rates observed in thunderstorms on Earth) which is six times higher than the peak values detected by Voyager 1.

“These discoveries could only happen with Juno,” said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. “Our unique orbit allows our spacecraft to fly closer to Jupiter than any other spacecraft in history, so the signal strength of what the planet is radiating out is a thousand times stronger. Also, our microwave and plasma wave instruments are state-of-the-art, allowing us to pick out even weak lightning signals from the cacophony of radio emissions from Jupiter. “

NASA's Juno spacecraft will make its 13th science flyby over Jupiter's mysterious cloud tops on July 16.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Microwave Radiometer instrument (MWR) was built by JPL. The Juno Waves instrument was provided by the University of Iowa. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the spacecraft.
MEN'S NIKE SF AIR FORCE 1 MID 17 BLACK 917753-005 SZ 7.5~12,Nike Air Huarache Run iD NikeiD Red Men's 777330 978 Sz 9921196-010 Men's Air Jordan Flight Origin 4 MID Black Sizes 8-12 New In Box,Nike Air Max 95 Essential Shoes Carbon Green Black 749766-300 Mens US 9,Nike Lunar Force 1 NS Premium, Black / White / Neon, Green, 629970 001, Size 14NIKE AIR MAX 95 USED SIZE 10 NEPTUNE BLUE STEALTH GREY 609048 055,Man's/Woman's Nike KD 7 VII Aunt Pearl selling price fashionable Simple,NEW Nike Men's Air Jordan NEW SCHOOL Basketball Shoes Insignia Blue 768901-401Men/Women nike air jordan 11 retro low elegant Strong value Brand feast,AIR JORDAN 31 XXX1 LOW GEORGETOWN HOYAS WOLF GREY NAVY NCAA PE size 10.5,Nike Sb Fire Cracker 4th Of July,Brand New Air Jordan Retro 23 Chitown Chicago Red Black Gum SZ 10.5 (811645-650)AIR JORDAN 11 RETRO XI LOW TD CLEATS SZ 8.5 CONCORD WHITE BLACK AO1560 123,Nike Air Max 1 SE Men New Shoes Mens Black Anthracite White Sneakers AO1021-001Nike Airmax Brand New No Box - Size 13 Olive Green Free Shipping!Air Jordan VIII 8 Bugs Bunny Nike size 7.5 8DS NIKE 2016 DUNK OG RETRO QS NAVY 11.5 SUPREME SF DENIM HYPERFUSE OLYMPIC MAX,Nike Air Jordan Ultra.fly Gym Red Infrared 23 834268-602 8-13 zoom 1 11 3 12NIKE AIR MAX 90 ROYAL MEN'S CASUAL SHOES SIZE: 6.5 COOL GREY WHITE 885891 002,Nike Air Max Sequent 2 - Mens size 10 - Brand New - Rare,Men/Women Air Jordan 12 Retro Crazy price, Birmingham high quality Various latest designs,Men's Nike Roshe Two Flyknit SIZE 8.5 Shoes Black/Dark Grey/White 844833 010,Gentlemen/Ladies Nike Zoom Shift Size Us 14 Fashion pattern Stylish and charming Non-slip,2010 Nike Air Max Hyperfly SZ 13 Black Pine Green Flywire OG PE 407535-004,NIKE FLIGHT BONAFIDE FLYKNIT "JASON KIDD" MILITARY BLUE SZ 11 [917742-400],Nike Zoom Winflo 5 Mens AA7406-004 Black Crimson Volt Running Shoes Size 8.5,New NIKE Men Air Max 90 ESSENTIAL Shoe White/Solar Red/Navy [537384-136] sz 11.5NIKE Men's Air Zoom Vomero 12 Running Shoe Black/White/Anthracite Size 10 M USNike Free RN CMTR 2018 Run Men Running Slip On Shoes Sneakers Trainers Pick 1,New Size 13 Men’s Nike Air Max LD-Zero Suede Leather 848624-100
New Nike Roshe Two Flyknit 844833-007 Black Wolf Grey Running Shoes Size 8.5,

Members of the media, please contact:

D.C. Agle
Juno Media Relations Representative
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dwayne Brown
NASA Public Affairs Officer
NASA Headquarters

Where is Juno now?

Visualize Juno’s journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System 3D interactive.