Looks like you're using an older browser. For the best experience possible, please upgrade your browser or download a modern browser.
We recommend these free browsers: Firefox or Chrome
You must update your Flash version to view videos. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
For the optimal Juno experience please install Chrome. Download Chrome. Or continue to explore features of the Juno spacecraft using the links on your left.



Men's Nike Internationalist Casual Mid Casual Internationalist Shoes, 682844 404 Sizes 8.5-11.5 Royal/Bl 213eb1

Ever since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past Jupiter in March, 1979, scientists have wondered about the origin of Jupiter’s lightning. That encounter confirmed the existence of Jovian lightning, which had been theorized for centuries. But when the venerable explorer hurtled by, the data showed that the lightning-associated radio signals didn’t match the details of the radio signals produced by lightning here at Earth.

In a new paper published in Nature today, scientists from NASA’s Juno mission describe the ways in which lightning on Jupiter is actually analogous to Earth’s lightning. Although, in some ways, the two types of lightning are polar opposites.

“No matter what planet you’re on, lightning bolts act like radio transmitters -- sending out radio waves when they flash across a sky,” said Shannon Brown of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a Juno scientist and lead author of the paper. “But until Juno, all the lightning signals recorded by spacecraft [Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini] were limited to either visual detections or from the kilohertz range of the radio spectrum, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range. Many theories were offered up to explain it, but no one theory could ever get traction as the answer.”

Enter Juno, which has been orbiting Jupiter since July 4, 2016. Among its suite of highly sensitive instruments is the Microwave Radiometer Instrument (MWR), which records emissions from the gas giant across a wide spectrum of frequencies.  

“In the data from our first eight flybys, Juno’s MWR detected 377 lightning discharges,” said Brown. “They were recorded in the megahertz as well as gigahertz range, which is what you can find with terrestrial lightning emissions. We think the reason we are the only ones who can see it is because Juno is flying closer to the lighting than ever before, and we are searching at a radio frequency that passes easily through Jupiter’s ionosphere.”

While the revelation showed how Jupiter lightning is similar to Earth’s, the new paper also notes that where these lightning bolts flash on each planet is actually quite different.

“Jupiter lightning distribution is inside out relative to Earth,” said Brown. “There is a lot of activity near Jupiter’s poles but none near the equator. You can ask anybody who lives in the tropics -- this doesn’t hold true for our planet.”

Why do lightning bolts congregate near the equator on Earth and near the poles on Jupiter? Follow the heat.

Earth’s derives the vast majority of its heat externally from solar radiation, courtesy of our Sun. Because our equator bears the brunt of this sunshine, warm moist air rises (through convection) more freely there, which fuels towering thunderstorms that produce lightning.

Jupiter’s orbit is five times farther from the Sun than Earth’s orbit, which means that the giant planet receives 25 times less sunlight than Earth. But even though Jupiter’s atmosphere derives the majority of its heat from within the planet itself, this doesn’t render the Sun’s rays irrelevant. They do provide some warmth, heating up Jupiter’s equator more than the poles -- just as they heat up Earth. Scientists believe that this heating at Jupiter’s equator is just enough to create stability in the upper atmosphere, inhibiting the rise of warm air from within. The poles, which do not have this upper-level warmth and therefore no atmospheric stability, allow warm gases from Jupiter’s interior to rise, driving convection and therefore creating the ingredients for lightning.

“These findings could help to improve our understanding of the composition, circulation and energy flows on Jupiter,” said Brown. But another question looms, she said. “Even though we see lightning near both poles, why is it mostly recorded at Jupiter’s north pole?”

In a second Juno lightning paper published today in Nature Astronomy, Ivana Kolmašová of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, and colleagues, present the largest database of lightning-generated low-frequency radio emissions around Jupiter (whistlers) to date. The data set of more than 1,600 signals, collected by Juno’s Waves instrument, is almost 10 times the number recorded by Voyager 1. Juno detected peak rates of four lightning strikes per second (similar to the rates observed in thunderstorms on Earth) which is six times higher than the peak values detected by Voyager 1.

“These discoveries could only happen with Juno,” said Scott Bolton, principal investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio. “Our unique orbit allows our spacecraft to fly closer to Jupiter than any other spacecraft in history, so the signal strength of what the planet is radiating out is a thousand times stronger. Also, our microwave and plasma wave instruments are state-of-the-art, allowing us to pick out even weak lightning signals from the cacophony of radio emissions from Jupiter. “

NASA's Juno spacecraft will make its 13th science flyby over Jupiter's mysterious cloud tops on July 16.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA's New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The Microwave Radiometer instrument (MWR) was built by JPL. The Juno Waves instrument was provided by the University of Iowa. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the spacecraft.
Nike SF AF1 Special Air Force Mid OBJ Orange 917753-801 Sz 11.5 NO BOX TOP,Nike Huarache Ultra Run Blue White Vapor Max 90 95 Jordan 1 9 10 5,Men's/Women's Nike Air Huarache - 318429 304 Various goods Selected materials professional design,Nike SFB FIeld 8" 631371 222 Special Field Boots Sage Olive Green size 12 NEW,Nike Air Max2 CB 94 Low Charles Barkley Light Bone Bordeaux 917752-004 NWOB,NIKE FLYKNIT LUNAR3 OREO BLACK WOLF GREY 698181 010Nike Mens Air Max Axis Running Shoes Invigor Torch Sequent AA2146-200 Size 11.5,NIKE AIR JORDAN ULTRA FLY MEN'S SHOES JIMMY BUTLER BLACK GREY (834268-010) SZ 10,Nike Cortez Kenny 3 III Kendrick Lamar Black,NEW Mens Nike Shox Gravity Casual Shoes AQ8553-006 Gunsmoke/White Crimson c1,Nike Lunarepic Low Flyknit - Loyal Blue / Black / Blue Glow Size 12 NewNIKE 333824-052 Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski Skate Shoe Size12 Black/Grn-glow/WhiteNike LunarEpic iD Flyknit Running Shoe SZ 14 Multicolor 835924-993,Nike Free Hypervenom 2 Hyper Turquoise/Hyper Turquoise-Black 747139-300,nike flyknit racer Pearl Pink Size 10 Macaron Pack,Gentleman/Lady Jordan Spizike Toro shoes size 9 Adequate supply and timely delivery Elegant style Brand feast,NIKE AIR MAX LD-ZERO RUNNING SHOES 360 AIR PURE PLATINUM MENS 12 NEW 848624-004,Men's Brand New Nike Air Huarache Run PRM Athletic Fashion Sneakers [704830 009],NIKE AIR MAX+ 2014 ID RUNNING SHOE BLACK/WHITE SIZE MEN'S 8.5 [641423-991],NIKE AIR PRESTO ESSENTIAL SHOES WOLF GREY/BLUE SIZE 10 BRAND NEW (848187-010),Air Jordan Retro 13 “Bred” Size 11,NIKE AIR SHAKE NDESTRUKT SZ 9 WHITE BLACK 2017 DENNIS RODMAN IN HAND 880869 100Nike Presto Fly Mens Running Trainers 908019 Sneakers Shoes 405Nike Jordan 1 Flight 4 Premium Men's Size 10 Black Grey 838818-020,Nike sneakers T90 Shoot IV IC in Mango Black and White Size 8.5,Nike Trainerendor Sneakers Burgandy / Navy 616575-641 Men’s 11.5NIB Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 34 Sneakers Shoes Red Black 898066-006 Mens Sz 9.5 -13,MENS NIKE LUNARGLIDE 8 OC in colors MULTI COLOR / MULTI COLOR SIZE 11,NIKE KD 7 VII LIGHTNING 534 CAVE PURPLE HYPER GRAPE 653996-535 US 11 bhm easter,Man/Woman nike foamposite wool Beautiful color low cost Current shape,
Mr/Ms airmax plus LX We have won praise from our customers. Fast delivery high quality product,

Members of the media, please contact:

D.C. Agle
Juno Media Relations Representative
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dwayne Brown
NASA Public Affairs Officer
NASA Headquarters

Where is Juno now?

Visualize Juno’s journey through space and get up-to-date data sets using NASA's Eyes on the Solar System 3D interactive.